Vancomycin resistance

Vancomycin resistance: occurrence, mechanisms and

  1. Vancomycin has long been considered the antibiotic of last resort against serious and multi-drug-resistant infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. However, vancomycin resistance has emerged, first in enterococci and, more recently, in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, the authors attempt to review the prevalence and the mechanisms of such resistance
  2. antly involved in cell envelope biosynthesis
  3. Vancomycin resistance has been reported in clinical isolates of both coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus. The emerging threat of widespread vancomycin resistance poses a serious public health concern given the fact that vancomycin has long been the preferred treatment of antibiotic-resistant gram-positive organisms
  4. us (d-ala-d-lac instead of the usual d-ala-d-ala), resulting in reduced vancomycin binding and failure to prevent cell wall synthesis
  5. However, vancomycin resistance has emerged, first in enterococci and, more recently, in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, the authors attempt to review the prevalence and the mechanisms of such..
  6. imizes the loss of conformational entropy upon binding, leading to micromolar binding affinities. Predo

Vancomycin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureu

Infections attributable to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) strains have become increasingly prevalent over the past decade. Prompt identification of colonized patients combined with effective multifaceted infection control practices can reduce the transmission of VRE and aid in the prevention of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) Vancomycin Resistance With antibiotic use comes the development of resistant strains. Vancomycin is typically used for suspected or known Staphylococcus aureus (Staph) infections. It is also active against a variety of other common gram-positive bacteria, such as the streptococciand enterococci species What is a vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE)? VRE is a strain of bacteria that can cause infection. Usually the antibiotic vancomycin is used to kill the bacteria. However, VRE is resistant to vancomycin and makes it difficult to treat. VRE most commonly causes an infection in the urinary tract, blood, or a wound Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) Published Date: 11/4/19. Series: CDC's 2019 Antibiotic Resistance Threats Report Language: English This fact sheet is part of CDC's 2019 Antibiotic Resistance Threats Report.. As a result, the intrinsic resistance to low concentrations of vancomycin (MICs as high as 32 µg/mL) that is a characteristic of these species was little more than a curiosity to infectious diseases clinicians. In contrast, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause the great majority of enterococcal infections

Reduced vancomycin susceptibility and resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. By the end of the 1990s the relatively few multidrug-resistant and highly epidemic clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) had become the most frequent causative agents of S. aureus disease in both hospitals and communities (1) Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) in Healthcare Settings Enterococci are bacteria (germs) that are normally present in the human intestines and in the female genital tract, and are often found in the environment, like in soil and water. These bacteria can cause infections The potential emergence of vancomycin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylo-coccus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis also is a public health concern. The vanA gene, which is frequently plasmid-borne and confers high-level resistance to vancomycin, can be transferred in vitro from enterococci to a variety of gram-positiv VRE (Vancomycin Resistant enterococcus) is a type of enterococcus that has become resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin. Vancomycin is an important antibiotic belonging to the glycopeptide class of antibiotics which are used to treat serious infections. When enterococcus is Vancomycin resistant, the antibiotic cannot kill the bacterium an

Vancomycin resistance is associated with the high mortality rate by VRE. Hence, clinical settings should be improved and infection control practices should be adapted in addition to control of excessive use of antibiotics to reduce the occurrence of VRE bacteraemia. Resistance Markers of Vancomycin Resistance markers of vancomycin have been classified i Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium Enterococci cause a range of illnesses, mostly among patients receiving healthcare, including bloodstream infections, surgical site infections, and urinary tract infections. E. faecium can be resistant to many antibiotics, including vancomycin

The first vancomycin-resistant clinical isolates of Enterococcus species were reported in Europe in 1988. Similar strains were later detected in hospitals on the East Coast of the United States. Since then, vancomycin-resistant enterococci have spread with unexpected rapidity and are now encountered in hospitals in most countries Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits cell wall synthesis and used to treat severe Gram-positive bacterial infections. Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) were first reported in England and France in 1986 and now spread through hospitals worldwide The vancomycin resistance in the bacteria are caused by a plasmid, a fragment of genetic material that allows the bacteria to be resistant to vancomycin. Are VRE contagious? VRE are contagious from person to person. However, if a patient takes antibiotics, VRE organisms may develop in the individual (usually in the gastrointestinal tract or on. Vancomycin resistance in enterococci is mainly due to the acquisition of vanA and vanB genes, which have been primarily detected in Enterococcus faecium . Asymptomatic intestinal colonization with VRE is widely reported, and it can act as a reservoir for dissemination and subsequent infection [4-6]. Effective infection control and prevention. Vancomycin resistance has been reported in clinical isolates of both coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus.The emerging threat of widespread vancomycin resistance poses a serious public health concern given the fact that vancomycin has long been the preferred treatment of antibiotic-resistant gram-positive organisms

Six different types of vancomycin resistance are shown by enterococcus: Van-A, Van-B, Van-C, Van-D, Van-E and Van-G. The significance is that Van-A VRE is resistant to both vancomycin and teicoplanin, Van-B VRE is resistant to vancomycin but susceptible to teicoplanin, and Van-C is only partly resistant to vancomycin The plasmid-encoded vanA gene is the most common enterococcal ARG conferring high-level vancomycin resistance to E. faecium and E. faecalis (VRE), with high transmissibility and propensity to cause major clinical infections [ 6, 7 ]

Vancomycin Resistance in Staphylococc

Vancomycin hydrochloride is indicated for the treatment of serious or severe infections caused by susceptible strains of methicillin-resistant (beta-lactam-resistant) staphylococci.It is indicated for penicillin-allergic patients, for patients who cannot receive or who have failed to respond to other drugs, including the penicillins or cephalosporins, and for infections caused by vancomycin. Vancomycin is a member of the glycopeptide class of antibiotics. Vancomycin resistance (van) gene clusters are found in human pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and. Sometimes, the bacteria become resistant to the antibiotic. That means they can live even though the drug is designed to kill them. These superbugs are called vancomycin-resistant enterococci, or VRE

resistance operon providing high level resistance to vancomycin is present in various Actinobacteria, with the Streptomyces coelicolor operon serving as a model system for studies of glycopeptide resistance in this genus.23 The structure and function of the five core proteins encoded by the D-Ala-D-lac based vancomycin resistance VANCOMYCIN-RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCI (VRE) 0. PATIENTS AT RISK. Patients at high risk for VRE infections include those who are undergoing complex or prolonged healthcare (such as patients in long-term acute care hospitals or ICUs) or patients with weakened immune systems (such as patients undergoing cancer treatment or with organ transplants) VanC-type Enterococcus gallinarum is intrinsically resistant to low levels of vancomycin but not to teicoplanin ().The basis of this resistance, which is inducible by vancomycin or constitutive (3, 9, 13, 14), is the replacement of d-Ala by d-Ser at the C-terminal position of the peptidoglycan precursor, which results in its lower affinity for vancomycin () A case of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is defined as an Enterococcus organism that is resistant to vancomycin (MIC of 16 or greater or Kirby Bauer results of resistant), and was cultured from a sterile body site or is isolated from a newly infected site (i.e. acute decubitus). An invasive disease is defined as isolation of the.

(PDF) Vancomycin resistance: Occurrence, mechanisms and

The emergence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) represents a challenge for the treatment of staphylococcal infections in both human and animals worldwide. Although VRSA has been detected in several animal species worldwide, data on the bacterial prevalence in dromedary camels and workers in camel slaughterhouses are scarce Despite many studies, our knowledge on the impact of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria on the metabolic activity of soil microbial communities is still limited. To ascertain this impact, the community level physiological profiles (CLPPs) and the activity of selected enzymes (dehydrogenase, urease, and phosphatases) in soils treated with vancomycin (VA) and/or multidrug resistant. Introduction. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of serious nosocomial infections.. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide in clinical use for more than 50 years, still serves as the cornerstone of the treatment of drug-resistant Gram-positive infections

Introduction. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is a rare bacterium in Japan, but an outbreak due to nosocomial transmission in medical facilities has been reported in recent years. Here, we report the outbreak of vanA vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) in multiple wards of Nara Prefectural General Medical Center in 2019 and results of the molecular epidemiology analysis Therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: A revised consensus guideline and review by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacist The vancomycin agar screen test uses commercially prepared plates containing brain heart infusion (BHI) agar and 6 μg/ml of vancomycin to screen pure cultures of bacteria for vancomycin resistance. Commercially-Laboratory Surveillance and Diagnostics Issues . Commercially-prepared. plates that contain BHI agar and 6 g/ml of vancomycin may b Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis cause a range of illnesses, mostly among patients receiving healthcare, including bloodstream infections, surgical site infections, and urinary tract infections.E. faecalis can be resistant to many antibiotics, including vancomycin. Such resistance makes treatment of these infections more difficult Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) High-level vancomycin resistance in S. aureus has been rarely reported. In vitro and in vivo experiments reported in 1992 demonstrated that vancomycin resistance genes from Enterococcus faecalis could be transferred by gene transfer to S. aureus, conferring high-level vancomycin resistance to S. aureus

Vancomycin Resistance Is Overcome by Conjugation of

  1. Vancomycin and related glycopeptides are drugs of last resort for the treatment of severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria such as Enterococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile.Vancomycin was long considered immune to resistance due to its bactericidal activity based on binding to the bacterial cell envelope rather than to a protein target as is the case for.
  2. e the correct dose
  3. Two recent reports suggested that the less common, less virulent enterococcal species, Enterococcus gallinarum and E. casseliflavus, with low-level vancomycin resistance due to chromosomally encoded vanC1 and vanC2/3, may influence host immunity. We reported that peri-transplant gut colonization with E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus is associated with lower mortality after allogeneic.
  4. i, to which vancomycin binds with significantly lower affinity
  5. Bacterial resistance threatens to destroy the achievements of antibiotic therapy. As P. Uhl and co‐workers report in their Communication on page 8823, a 1000‐fold increase in the activity of the reserve antibiotic vancomycin was achieved by using peptide conjugates.This approach reveals the potential of chemically modifying proven natural products as an alternative to the costly de novo.
  6. Vancomycin prevents the synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors of the bacterial cell wall by blocking the transglycosylation step and subsequently affecting the transpeptidation step - both are essential for bacterial cell wall cross-linking. multiple vancomycin-resistance phenotypes (e.g. VanA, VanB, VanC, VanD, VanE, and VanG

Resistance Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Approaches to

Genes encoding vancomycin resistance have only been reported in E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum, and these have been associated with natural bacterial vancomycin resistance encoded in the vanC1 and vanC2 or C3 genes. In total, 26 (13.75%) multidrug-resistant strains and 23 different multidrug-resistant phenotypes were identified Secondly, the patient's risk factors (i.e., diabetes, CAPD, chronic infections with MRSA or methicillin-resistant CONS, indwelling catheter, and multiple courses of antimicrobial therapy that included vancomycin) closely parallel those of a number of reported cases of infection caused by strains of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to. The first documented strain with complete (>16 μg/ml) resistance to vancomycin, termed vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) appeared in the United States in 2002. However, in 2011, a variant of vancomycin was tested that binds to the lactate variation and also binds well to the original target, thus reinstating potent antimicrobial activity VRE in Australia. The occurrence of VRE in Australia is monitored by the Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) Surveillance System through the Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) and Australian Passive AMR Surveillance (APAS). The first APAS report found that vancomycin non-susceptible Enterococcus faecium strains are now very common across Australia Gram-positive pathogens mainly, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, are developing increasing resistance to glycopeptides that pose a problem in treating infections caused by these pathogens.Vancomycin is the treatment of choice in treating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Community-acquired MRSA is associated with infections in patients without.

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) that can cause healthcare-associated infections and increase both length of stay and in-hospital mortality [1, 2].The WHO listed VRE as a pathogen of high priority in its global list of important antibiotic-resistant bacteria [].In Europe, several countries reported an increasing proportion of vancomycin. Vancomycin has been considered to be the reference standard for the treatment of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, as a result of its relatively clean safety profile, its durability against the development of resistance, and, for many years, the lack of other approved alternatives. However, the advent and testing of new compounds with anti-MRSA activity. In response to the Brian Cox series, Wonders of Life, this video thinks about why molecules really DO matter!! Using the example of Vancomycin, the antibioti.. Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus was cultured from the exit site of a temporary dialysis catheter of a patient with diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and persistent foot ulcers. The organism car..

The emergence of high-level resistance to glycopeptides in enterococci in 1986 (Refs 121, 122) was surprising, as vancomycin had been used for decades without the emergence of resistance. However. For vancomycin resistance, the D-ala-D-ala dipeptide is altered into D-ala-D-lac, which has reduced susceptibility to vancomycin [16, 19]. The different resistances acquired by S. aureus are.

Increases in prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been documented globally since its emergence in the 1980s. A SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2003) objective monitored VRE isolates with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility trends, geographic resistance variability, and clonal dissemination. In 2003, VRE isolates from North America (United States and Canada. Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) Dr. Abhijeet Mane. 2. What is antimicrobial resistance? - Microbes cause infectious diseases - Antimicrobial agents combat severity and spread - Emergence of resistance is natural biological phenomenon - Selective Pressure - Majority microbes killed, but mutants may resist - Lead to. Vancomycin Resistance Increases Morbidity and MortalityVancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), first reported inEurope in 1988, are emerging as a global threat to publichealth . The incidence of VRE infection and colonizationamong hospitalized patients has increased rapidly in thelast 7 years Vancomycin is a glycopeptide with activity against most gram-positive microorganisms, including MRSA but excepting VRE. 89 Vancomycin resistance has been associated with former exposure to vancomycin, especially for VRE. 60,90 Tissue penetration into soft tissues is poor. 89 Vancomycin was the most common antibiotic agent used against.

Vancomycin Mechanism of Action Resistance and More

2019 AR Threats Report. CDC's Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019 (2019 AR Threats Report) includes the latest national death and infection estimates that underscore the continued threat of antibiotic resistance in the U.S.. According to the report, more than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections occur in the U.S. each year, and more than 35,000 people die as a result Enterococci are bacteria that are normally present in the human intestines, female genital tract and are often found in the environment. These bacteria can h.. Al- though vancomycin has been used mainly to treat Vancomycin, a tricyclic glycopeptide, was developed serious infections caused by StaphyZococcus species nearly 40 years ago to address increasing resistance (Sorrel1 et al. 1982), it also demonstrated therapeutic to penicillin and other antimicrobials among staph- promise in use against the. In July 2018 EUCAST issued a warning against the use of vancomycin gradient tests to detect vancomycin resistance in E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. 6. In this prospective study we analysed if vanB-mediated vancomycin resistance can be reliably detected by Vitek2 and whether vancomycin resistance can emerge after vancomycin exposure in vitro

Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus - What You Need to Kno

A Redesigned Vancomycin Engineered for Dual d-Ala-d-Ala and d-Ala-d-Lac Binding Exhibits Potent Antimicrobial Activity Against Vancomycin-Resistant Bacteria. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2011, 133 (35) , 13946-13949 Prescribe vancomycin only for a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection to prevent the development of drug resistant bacteria Hypotension, including shock and cardiac arrest, wheezing, dyspnea, urticaria, muscular and chest pain may occur with rapid IV administration; reactions may be more severe in younger patients, particularly. Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat infections caused by enterococci. When enterococci become resistant to vancomycin (the antibiotic no longer works against the bacteria), they are called vancomycin-resistant enterococci or VRE. This does not mean that someone who has an infection caused b MRSA, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and C. difficile persist in the environment and have been recovered from a number of commonly touched items such as keyboards, doorknobs, medical charts, bathtubs, toilets and furniture.20 - 23 There is debate as to whether the environment is responsible for the colonization of patients or whether soiled.

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) Enterococci are bacteria (germs) that commonly live in the gastrointestinal tract (bowels) of most people (this is called colonisation) without causing illness. Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat infections caused by enterococci Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) cause nosocomial infections and are associated with increased rates of illness and death (1,2).Both organisms are now endemic in many healthcare institutions, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs) ().Vancomycin is commonly used to treat infections caused by MRSA; however, recent emergence of S.

Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus

Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: Mechanisms and Clinical

Beginning of Vancomycin Resistant Staphylocoous• Vancomycin has been the most reliable therapeutic agent against infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, in 1996 the first MRSA to acquire resistance to vancomycin, was isolated from a Japanese patient Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections: epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and optimal management Tristan O'Driscoll,1 Christopher W Crank2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Chicago College of Pharmacy, Downers Grove, IL, USA; 2Pharmacy Services, Rush-Copley Medical Center, Aurora, IL, USA Abstract: Since its discovery in England and France in 1986, vancomycin-resistant. A urinary tract infection due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci was diagnosed; the patient was treated with intravenous vancomycin (1 g on day 1) and oral.

JCI - Mechanisms of vancomycin resistance in

Isolates of vancomycin resistant S.aureus have emerged in many parts of the world. These isolates appear to achieve clinically relevant levels of resistance to vancomycin that leads to treatment failure. At present, the proportion of MRSA with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin is well known. Only 21 strains have so far been reported in. Transposon Tn1546, a Tn3-related transposon,causing vancomycin resistance, was associated with a cluster of seven genes including vanS, vanR, vanH, vanA, vanX, vanY, and vanZ. 10 Generally, the horizontal transfer of Tn1546 transposon from vancomycin-resistant Enterococci spp to S. aureus strains is responsible for resistance to vancomycin in S.

Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci. 1. VANCOMYCIN-RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCI 1. 2. INTRODUCTION • Enterococci are gram-positive cocci which often occur in pairs (diplococci). •Occur almost everywhere, including soil, food, water, plants, animals, birds, and insects •they inhabit in humans and other animal's gastrointestinal tract and the female. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a type of bacteria called enterococci that have developed resistance to many antibiotics, especially vancomycin. Enterococci bacteria live in our intestines and on our skin, usually without causing problems. But if they become resistant to antibiotics, they can cause serious infections, especially in. Introduction. Over the last decade vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) have become increasingly prevalent, causing infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. 1, 2 The endemic occurrence of VREfm and the increasing number of outbreaks with only limited remaining therapeutic options led to the WHO classification as a high-priority pathogen in 2017. 3, Based on levels of vancomycin resistance, vancomycin-non-susceptible S. aureus has been classified into vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA, MIC = 4-8 mg/L) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA, MIC ≥16 mg/L). 12 Because of high prevalence of VISA, VISA is a much greater problem in the clinic than VRSA. 1

Comparison of in vitro efficacy of linezolid and

The introduction of antimicrobial agents with specific activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) faecium including daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and tigecycline did not completely resolve this clinical dilemma. In this review, the mechanisms of action and resistance to currently available anti-VRE. Description. Vancomycin resistance.svg. English: Diagram depicting the action of the antibiotic vancomycin and one way bacteria have evolved resistance to it. Background: The bacterial cell wall consists of strands of repeating N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) subunits. The NAM subunits have short peptide chains attached.

The evolution of daptomycin resistance among vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VR E. faecium) is a relevant and tractable system to study off-target selection. VR E. faecium is an important cause of hospital-acquired infections Epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at two referral centers in Tehran, Iran: a descriptive study. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 15, Issue. 5, p. e332 Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium declined to 24.1%. The resistance rates of Acinetobacter baumannii to imipenem and meropenem increased from 25.4% and 28.8% to 55.4% and 37.5%, respectively

Glycopeptides (Vancomycin, Teicoplanin): Mechanism of

VRE in Healthcare Settings HAI CD

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a major cause of nosocomial infection. We sought to compare vancomycin-resistant (VR) Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia and VR Enterococcus faecium bacteremia in cancer patients with respect to risk factors, clinical presentation, microbiological characteristics, antimicrobial therapy, and outcomes Microevolutionary Events Involving Narrow Host Plasmids Influences Local Fixation of Vancomycin-Resistance in Enterococcus Populations. By Fernando Baquero. Clonal outbreak of ST17 multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium harbouring an Inc18-like::Tn1546 plasmid in a haemo-oncology ward of a Spanish hospital We report a case of intracranial infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), which was sensitive to vancomycin (MIC=2μg/mL) and linezolid (MIC=4μg/mL). The trough concentration of vancomycin in serum was 18.3 μg/mL, and the vancomycin concentration in CSF was 5.0 μg/mL, all within normal range We report the emergence of vancomycin resistance in a patient colonized with a vanA-containing, vanRS-negative isolate of Enterococcus faecium which was initially vancomycin susceptible. This is a previously undescribed mechanism of drug resistance with diagnostic and therapeutic implications

The Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Drugs Market report offers insights into the latest trends. It highlights leading companies in the market and discusses the strategies that these. The spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is a major threat in nosocomial settings. A large-scale multiclonal VRE outbreak has rarely been reported in Japan due to low VRE prevalence Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in treated sewage sludge, in a Swedish waste water. Vancomycin Hydrochloride for injection, USP is indicated for initial therapy when methicillin-resistant staphylococci are suspected, but after susceptibility data are available, therapy should be adjusted accordingly. Vancomycin Hydrochloride for injection, USP is effective in the treatment of staphylococcal endocarditis

Getting to Know Superbugs: VRE - Tru-D SmartUVCvancomycin-resistant Enterococcus - meddic