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PROM memory cell

US5311039A - PROM and ROM memory cells - Google Patent

An antifuse memory cell having a P + polysilicon doping in a region directly under an intrinsic silicon programming layer. The P + polysilicon region is surrounded by an N - polysilicon doped region, and the two regions are sandwiched between layers of silicon dioxide insulation For this reason, the first Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM) 17 devices were developed at Harris Semiconductor in 1970. These devices were created using a nichrome-based fusible-link 18 technology. As a generic example, consider a somewhat simplified representation of a transistor-and-fusible-link-based PROM cell (Figure 15.10) This invention relates generally to semiconductor memory devices, and more specifically to read only memory ROM and antifuse-based programmable read only memory (PROM) cells having improved ON and OFF characteristics that allow advanced levels of microminiaturization A programmable read-only memory (PROM) is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is locked by a fuse or antifuse. (eFUSEs can also be used) It is one type of read-only memory (ROM). The data in them are permanent and cannot be changed PROM or programmable ROM ( programmable read-only memory) is a computer memory chip that can be programmed once after it is created. Once the PROM is programmed, the information written is permanent and cannot be erased or deleted. PROM was first developed by Wen Tsing Chow in 1956

Traditional lumped element equivalent model of an E PROM memory cell, where C , C , C , and C are the capacitances between FG and drain, source, body and CG, respectively EPROM (UV Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) is a special type of ROM that is pro-grammed electrically and yet is erasable under UV light. The EPROM device is programmed by forcing an electrical charge on a small piece of polysilicon material (called the floating gate) located in the memory cell. When this charge is present on thi The difference between a PROM and a ROM (read-only memory) is that a PROM is manufactured as blank memory, whereas a ROM is programmed during the manufacturing process. To write data onto a PROM chip, you need a special device called a PROM programmer or PROM burner. The process of programming a PROM is sometimes called burning the PROM The memory cells of a completely erased EPROM all contain a '1'. Programming a cell, which entails charging up the cell's floating gate to a certain level, gives it a new value of '0'. A memory cell sensor determines the amount of charge stored in the floating gate and compares it with a given threshold. If the charge stored exceeds the.

EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable ROM) Flash EPROM. Mask ROM. Types of ROM. 1. PROM (programmable ROM) and OTP. PROM refers to the kind of ROM that the user can burn information into. In other words, PROM is a user-programmable memory. Bipolar PROM IC The memory cell is the fundamental building block of computer memory. The memory cell is an electronic circuit that stores one bit of binary information and it must be set to store a logic 1 and reset to store a logic 0. Its value is maintained/stored until it is changed by the set/reset process. The value in the memory cell can be accessed by reading it. Over the history of computing, different memory cell architectures have been used, including core memory and bubble memory. Today, the most c The model we propose has been validated on E<sup>2</sup>PROM and flash memory cells manufactured in existing technology (0.35 μm and 0.25 μm) by STMicroelectronic EEPROM (also E 2 PROM) stands for electrically erasable programmable read-only memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers, integrated in microcontrollers for smart cards and remote keyless systems, and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data by allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed

Programmable Read-Only Memory - an overview

The Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM) is a data circuit that retains its memory even when power is off. Security system manufacturers use EPROMs to hold both the operating system and the program for the access control panel. The CPU performs the logical functions, but it gets its instructions from the EPROM changed to account for the programed/erase memory cell wereSmart Card application. For this reason, the sensing scheme thathas been developed is accurate in terms of current detec-tion, it ensures.. PROM: Stands for Programmable Read-Only Memory, and is pronounced p-rom, not prom like the high school dance. PROM is a type of ROM that is programmed after the memory is constructed. PROM chips have several different applications, including cell phones, video game consoles, RFID tags, medical devices, and other electronics. They provide. memory cell prom test circuit Prior art date 1992-10-13 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Expired - Lifetime Application number US08/135,178 Inventor Yoshihiro Tada Hiromi Uenoyam

PROM and ROM memory cells - Seiko Epson Corporatio

Computer Science MCA Operating System The Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory is a memory chip that does not lose data even when the power is switched off. This is a non-volatile memory type i.e. it retains data even when the power is switched off. Each EPROM is individually programmed by an electronic device Memory • Memory structures are crucial in digital design. - ROM, PROM, EPROM, RAM, SRAM, (S)DRAM, RDRAM,.. • All memory structures have an address bus and a data bus - Possibly other control signals to control output etc. • E.g. 4 Bit Address bus with 5 Bit Data Bus ADDR<3:0> DOUT<4:0> 24 x 5 ROM/RA PROM - It stands for Programmable Read-Only Memory . It is first prepared as blank memory, and then it is programmed to store the information . The difference between PROM and Mask ROM is that PROM is manufactured as blank memory and programmed after manufacturing, whereas a Mask ROM is programmed during the manufacturing process Programmable read-only memory (PROM), or one-time programmable ROM (OTP), can be written to or programmed via a special device called a PROM programmer. Typically, this device uses high voltages to permanently destroy or create internal links (fuses or antifuses) within the chip. Consequently, a PROM can only be programmed once Alternatively referred to as a FPROM (field programmable read-only memory) or OTP (one-time programmable) chip, PROM or Programmable ROM is short for Programmable Read Only Memory and is a computer memory chip first developed by Wen Tsing Chow in 1956 that is capable of being programmed once after it has been created.; Once the PROM has been programmed, the information written is permanent and.

PROMs and EPROMs were pioneering technologies in nonvolatile memory cells (i.e. they are able to retain data after disconnecting from power) which led to the development of modern solid state memory devices. What is PROM? PROM stands for Programmable Read Only Memory, a type of non-volatile memory created by Weng Tsing Chow in 1959 on the request of U EEPROM also written E 2 PROM is a type of non-volatile memory is a non-volatile memory used to store relatively small amounts of data that can allow individual bytes to be erased & reprogrammed. Semiconductor Memory Tutorial Includes A New Compact Spice-like Model of E~PROM Memory Cells Suitable for DC and Transient Simulations L. archer', P. pavan', M. cuozzo2, A. ~armiroli~ I D.S.I. and INFM, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 41 100 Modena, Italy STMicroelectronics, 2004 1 Agrate Brianza (MI), Italy Abstract This paper presents for the first time a new compact Spice-like model of a E*PRO

Programmable ROM - Wikipedi

What is PROM (Programmable ROM)

A DRAM memory cell consists of a transistor and a capacitor within an integrated system. A data bit is stored in the capacitor. Another type of ROM that has often replaced the PROM is the EPROM or the Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. This system uses a MOSFET as its main programmable component in the circuitry. This MOSFET has a. Applications of Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM) The Programmable ROM (PROM) are used in: Mobile Phones for providing User Specific Selections. Video game consoles; Implantable Medical devices. Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)tags. High definition Multimedia Interfaces(HDMI) Advantages of Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM EEPROM: It is an abbreviation used for electrically erasable programmable read-only memory. Initially, the data in E 2 PROM is erased by applying external voltage at the erase pin of the chip. But this somewhat increases the complexity of the overall system. The memory cells consist of flip flops that hold the data until the power supply is on

(PDF) A complete model of E2PROM memory cells for circuit

Each memory cell in a DRAM is made of one transistor and one capacitor, which store one bit of data. However, this cell starts losing its charge and hence data stored in less than thousandth of a second. PROM (Programmable ROM) PROM can be programmed using a special hardware device called PROM programmer or PROM burner. EPROM (Erasable. The process or programming a PROM is known as burning the PROM. Once it is programmed, the data cannot be modified later, so it is also called as one-time programmable device. Uses: It is used in cell phones, video game consoles, medical devices, RFID tags, and more. 3) Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM) 512-Mb PROM with a three-dimensional array of diode/antifuse memory cells Abstract: A 512-Mb one-time-programmable memory is described, which uses a transistorless two-terminal memory cell containing an antifuse and a diode. Cells are fabricated in polycrystalline silicon, stacked vertically in eight layers above a 0.25-μm CMOS substrate DRAM Cell Observations 1T DRAM requires a sense amplifier for each bit line, due to charge redistribution read-out. DRAM ll i lDRAM memory cells are single-enddi SRAMded in contrast to SRAM cells. The read-out of the 1T DRAM cell is destructive; read and ref h ti f t tifresh operations are necessary for correct operation. Unlike 3T cell, 1T cell requires presence of an extr

  1. Semiconductor memory is the essential electronics component needed for any computer based PCB assembly. In addition to this, memory cards have become commonplace items for temporarily storing data - everything from the portable flash memory cards used for transferring files, to semiconductor memory cards used in cameras, mobile phones and the like
  2. Ein Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM; deutsch programmierbarer Festwertspeicher) ist ein elektronisches Bauteil.. Die ursprünglichen PROMs werden inzwischen nicht mehr verwendet. PROMs sind von EPROMs abgelöst worden, wobei es hier von der Funktionalität des PROMs ähnliche OTP (one-time programmable)-ROM-Bausteine gibt, welche EPROM-Technologie einsetzen, jedoch aus Kostengründen kein.
  3. memory cell design. Triple-Test Flow Microchip tests every cell in wafer form twice, then performs a final test after assembly. • Full verification of data sheet parameters for functional compliance at die and package level • Removal of manufacturing defects to ensure highest quality and reliabilit
  4. Draw Logos From Memory. Draw the McDonalds logo. Reveal Logo. Draw the Nike logo. Reveal Logo. Draw the Apple logo. Reveal Logo. Draw the Starbucks logo. Reveal Logo
  5. - SRAM Cell - Decoders - Column Circuitry - Multiple Ports qSerial Access Memories. 13: SRAM CMOS VLSI Design Slide 3 Memory Arrays Memory Arrays Random Access Memory Serial Access Memory Content Addressable Memory (PROM) Erasable Programmable ROM (EPROM) Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM (EEPROM
  6. These PROMs are called Electrically Erasable PROM or EEPROM. Flash memory is a form of EEPROM in which a block of bytes can be erased in a very short duration. Example applications of EEPROM devices are: Storing current time and date in a machine. Storing port statuses. Example of Flash memory device applications are: Storing messages in a.

What is the meaning of PROM, EPROM, EEPROM? • Wim's BIO

  1. PROM is advantageous when produced in large scale and offer flexibility and convenience. Definition of EPROM. EPROM expands to Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory, this type of ROM is read and written optically (electrically). To write an EPROM, its storage cells must remain in the same initial state
  2. COAIn this video lecture you will learn memory cells like RAM, SRAM and DRA
  3. EEPROM- Acronym for electrically erasable programmable read-only memory. Pronounced double-ee-prom or e-e-prom, an EEPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge. Like other types of PROM, EEPROM retains its contents even when the power is turned off

Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM

  1. March 12, 2012 ECE 152A - Digital Design Principles 13 Memory Structure Array of memory cells Organization refers to number of and width of memory words Example 1024 bit memory can organized as: 1024 one-bit word 512 two-bit words 256 four-bit words 128 eight-bit words Internal array is the same for all organizations Decoding and I/O circuitry differ
  2. Programmable Read Only Memory as Logic Device. Programmable Read Only Memory can also be used as a logic device. A logic device performs an operation on one or more inputs, and produces a single output. Output is constant for respective input combinations. Therefore, if the device behavior is stored, the PROM can work like a logic device
  3. خلية بي ذاكرة (بالإنجليزية: Memory B cells ) هي خلية بائية تحولت في أحد الأعضاء اللمفاوية بعد أن تعرضدت لجسم دخيل (مثل ميكروب) وتحفزت لتكوين جسيمات مناعة في حالة مواجهتها لعدوى مستقبلا بنفس مسبب المرض ؛ لهذا تسمى تلك المقاومة.
  4. RAM is an array of storage cells. These cells are flip-flop. In some of these memories a word may be made up of say one row of flip-flops, which may be addressed simultaneously. Bipolar flip-flops have and access time of about 35 ns and one package may contain about 1 k cells whereas MOS devices have an access time of 400 ns but are large in size

Random Access Memory (RAM) is the best known form of Computer Memory.The Read and write (R/W) memory of a computer is called RAM. The User can write information to it and read information from it.With Ram any location can be reached in a fixed ( and short) amount of time after specifying its address.. The RAM is a volatile memory, it means information written to it can be accessed as long as. HP #662 CZ103AL... $ 32.00. HP #662XL CZ106AL... $ 79.00. Logitech Webcam C270. $ 139.00. Apple Itunes $10... $ 23.00. Out of Stock to include analog circuits, optimized memory cells, or mechanical structures on an IC, for example. Full-custom ICs are the most expensive to manufacture and to design. voltage (an electrically erasable PROM , or EEPROM ) or by exposing the device to ultraviolet light (UV-erasable PROM, or UVPROM) MEMORY INTERNAL Pengertian Dan Fungsi Memory Internal : Memory Internal adalah Memory yang dapat diakses secara langsung oleh prosesor. Dalam hal ini yang disimpan di dalam memori utama dapat berupa data atau program. Fungsi dari memori utama sendiri adalah : -Menyimpan data yang berasal dari peranti masukan sampai data dikirim ke ALU (Arithmetic an

Computer Memory - Types of Computer Memories & their

Types of ROM PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash EPROM & Mask RO

Una Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM, memoria di sola lettura programmabile), detta anche One Time Programmable (OTP), nell'elettronica digitale, è una tipologia di memoria ROM a stato solido programmabile una sola volta.. Nasce come evoluzione della ROM a maschera ed è volta a ridurne i notevoli costi di produzione dovuti alla progettazione delle maschere per l'impiantazione ionica The majority of products will require both non-volatile and volatile memory. But the specific types of memory required will depend on the specific product. The memory you select for your product will have a major impact on performance, cost and power consumption. Selecting the right types of memory for your new product is a critical decision The memory cells in each block may be organized into a plurality of pages (e.g., P pages Page 0 to Page P−1). For example, a plurality of memory cells controlled coupled to the same word line within the same block form one page. Each memory cell may be a nonvolatile memory cell, for example, a NAND memory cell Elizabeththreads. 114 likes. Handmade Personalised Cushions Memory Bears & Blankets Bridal, Prom & Clothing Alterations Please message for any further informatio

Memory cell (computing) - Wikipedi

Save More With Verizon, Military & Veterans Discount Program. -. $20 OFF. $20 Off Beats Studio Buds. 08/24/21. UP TO $500 OFF. Switch & Bring Your Phone To Verizon, Get Up to $500. 09/01/21. When you buy through links on RetailMeNot we may earn a commission polysilicon material (called a floating storage gate) located in the memory cell. When this charge is present on this gate, the cell is programmed, usually a logic 0, and when it is not present, it is a logic 1. Figure 9-5 shows the cell used in a typical EPROM. The floating gate is where the electrical charge is stored EET 3350 Digital Systems Design Textbook: John Wakerly Chapter 9: 9.1 Memory Read-Only Memory: ROM, PROM, EPROM 1 2. Memory• Sequential circuits all depend upon the presence of memory - A flip-flop can store one bit of information - A register can store a single word • typically 32 or 64 bits - Memory stores a large number of.

SILC effects on e 2PROM memory cell reliability Request PD

  1. PROM once 1 EPROM 1000s, UV 10 years FLASH 1000s, block 10 years EEPROM 1000s, byte 10 years NVRAM 1 5 years SRAM 1 while powered Static Random-Access Memory Cell Word line Bit line Bit line. Layout of a 6T SRAM Cell ! $% $% &$ '() # Weste and Harris. Introduction to CMOS VLSI Design. Addison-Wesley
  2. PROM --Programmable ROM A ROM which can be programmed EPROM --Erasable PROM A PROM which can be programmed, erased by exposure to UV radiation EEROM - Electrical EPROM A PROM programmed & erased electrically. 3 •Memory cells are organized in multiple bank
  3. g and erasing takes approximately 4-10ms and can retain its content even after the power goes off
  4. 그러나, Flash memory는 EEPROM보다 Memory Cell 구조가 간단하여 훨씬 대용량의 메모리 소자를 만드는데 적합하며, 1개의 Block 전체를 Write하는데 수 ms 정도가 걸리므로 대용량 Data를 Write할 때는 EEPROM보다 훨씬 빠르다는 장점을 가진다. 그런데, Flash memory는 내부 구조에.
  5. Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM) is a type of read-only memory (ROM) that can be programmed directly by the user using a special PROM programmer. It is a control memory in which stored information can be altered, but not as easily as in ordinary memory. A PROM that is able to be erased and rewritten is called an EPROM (standing for erasable programmable read-only memory)

When DRAM cells are in active state, then charge is at high state. When DRAM cells are an inactive state, then charge is below a certain level. Cache Memory Orgonization: Cache memory is a type of memory which is used to hold the frequently used data from main memory locations. The cache memory is placed close to the CPU RAM, ROM, EPROM, EEPROM, FLASH ROM 的 区别 1、RAM指的是随机存取存储器,即Random Access Memory 。. 它可以随时读写,而且速度很快,缺点是断电后信息丢失。. 2、 ROM 指的是只读存储器,即Read-Only Memory ,不能进行修改。. 3、 PROM 指的是可编程只读存储器既. The program / data is stored in the memory chip by a series of numbers - zeros and ones (=bits). A Bit can either be a zero (0) or a one (1). It is difficult for a person to gain an overview over these Bits; therefore, they are gathered into groups. Sixteen bits are a Word, eight bits are a Byte and four bits are a Nibble The memory cells used in the MB85RS128B can be used for 10 12 read/write operations, which is a significant improvement over the number of read and write operations supported by Flash memory and E 2 PROM This is so that each memory cell's electrical charge can be refilled as necessary. It's like a leaky bucket, and that leakiness is actually why RAM works as fast as it does. With power constantly coming in, RAM doesn't need to have the most robust construction, making data more quickly accessible

EEPROM - Wikipedi

The memory cells used in the MB85RS64 can be used for 10 10 read/write operations, which is a significant improvement over the number of read and write operations supported by Flash memory and E 2 PROM Digital Logic Design - Digital Electronics - Semiconductor Memories MCQsA +AA -. In this section of Digital Logic Design - Digital Electronics - Semiconductor Memories MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions and Answers),We have tried to cover the below lists of topics.All these MCQs will help you prepare for the various Competitive Exams and.

Difference Between RAM And ROM: 10 Major Differences

Prom Campaign - Make it a Memory. This campaign is for high school students attending prom. The concept is to make teens aware that they can have a fun time at prom without drinking. Posters are given to schools who partner with the campaign for their prom events, and students receive compact mirrors with the Make it a memory, not a. Radiation Hardened Nonvolatile Memory Portfolio. Cypress radiation-hardened nonvolatile memory products are the first serial-protocol-enabled nonvolatile memories for FPGA and processor boot code solutions. They serve a variety of state-of-the-art space-qualified, high-performance FPGAs as well as arm®-based microcontrollers EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory, E 2 PROM, 문화어: 전기적지우기가능프로그램화읽기전용기억기)는 비휘발성 메모리(NVM)의 하나이다.. 역사. Hughes Aircraft의 엘리 하라이(Eli Harari)는 1977년 얇은 부동 게이트를 통한 파울러 노드하임 터널링을 이용하여 EEPROM을 발명했다 A flash memory chip is composed of NOR or NAND gates. NOR is a type of memory cell created by Intel in 1988. The NOR gate interface supports full addresses, data buses and random access to any memory location. The shelf life of NOR flash is 10,000 to 1,000,000 write/erase cycles. NAND was developed by Toshiba a year after NOR was produced

Touch Screen 7 Inch Monitor IP Camera Screen PortableWhat are the different types of memory modules?

SRAM: is a memory chip that is faster and uses less power than DRAM. DRAM: is a memory chip that can hold more data than an SRAM chip, but it requires more power. First, some background. Random access memory (RAM) is a semiconductor device placed on a processor that stores variables for CPU calculations Classification of Memory. In computers, memory is the most essential component of the normal functioning of any system. The computer system categorizes the memory for different purposes and uses. In this section, we have discussed the classification of memory in detail. Also, we will discuss types of memory, features of memory, RAM, ROM, SRAM, DRAM, and its advantages and disadvantages The memory cells used in the MB85RS1MT can be used for 10 13 read/write operations, which is a significant improvement over the number of read and write operations supported by Flash memory and E 2 PROM Memory Hierarchy Memory is used for storing programs and data that are required to perform a specific task. For CPU to operate at its maximum speed, it required an uninterrupted and high speed access to these memories that contain programs and data. Some of the criteria need to be taken into consideration while decidin

PROM (Programmable ROM) A permanent memory chip in which the content is created (programmed) by the customer rather than by the chip manufacturer.It differs from a ROM chip, which is created at the time of manufacture. PROMs are used for storage when their content is not expected to change, but in many applications, they have given way to EPROMs and EEPROMs, which can be reprogrammed Differences in use. RAM allows the computer to read data quickly and efficiently to be able to run applications efficiently, whereas ROM stores the program required to initially boot the computer and perform diagnostics. RAM is a common type of memory found in computers and printers, and can go up to a few gigabytes. ROM is usually only a few thousand bytes of storage in personal computers

This paper presents a basic nonvolatile memory (NVM) overview. Section I begins with the introduction including a brief background of NVM's and the common terms used in the memory industry. The description and explanation of how an NVM is programmed (adding electrons) using hot-carrier injection is covered in section II. Section III covers the erasing or removing of electrons from floating. Tandem PROM Figure 1 shows the Tandem PROM method. The stage 1 and stage 2 bitstream segments are packed back-to-back in the same PROM in the form of a single bitstream. Tandem PROM flow is similar to standard flow. A single bitstream is generated at the end of implementation and the corresponding flash memory can be programmed. Both the PROM fil

Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for A A. Parents in Exeter, New Hampshire are furious that the school district marked students attending prom with red and black markers to denote if they were vaccinated against COVID-19 or not. Children that were not vaccinated were written on in black Sharpie on their hands and those that were vaccinated had some type of red marker put on them. EPROM【UV-EPROM / Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory】とは、電源を断っても記録内容が消えない不揮発メモリの一種で、利用者側で繰り返し内容の書き換えができるもの。最も一般的なのは紫外線を照射すると内容が消去され再書き込み可能になる素子を用いたもので「UV-EPROM」とも呼ばれる While on our first ever official American tour, we had the pleasure of being joined by the incredible Pooneh Ghana for our last two shows in Austin and Houst..

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Acronym. Definition. EPROM. Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. EPROM. Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. EPROM. Entrepreneurial Programming and Research on Mobiles (mobile phones; Massachusetts Institute of Technology) EPROM New BlitzWolf BW-CF1 Universal 360° Rotation Car Air Vent Auto Memory Lock Mobile Phone Holder Stand Bracket for 66-90mm Width for iPhone 12 POCO X3 NFC/POCO F3. August 1, 2021. Price: PEN111,53. Free Shipping. Buy Now ‡18+ & 50 US/DC only. Between 8/11/21 at 12:01 AM EST and 8/26/21 at 11:59 PM EST (Pre-Order Period), while supplies last, purchase the latest Galaxy device (Qualifying Purchase) at Samsung.com or Shop Samsung App, and get $200 with purchase of Galaxy Z Fold3 5G or $150 with purchase of Galaxy Z Flip3 5G, in Reward eCertificate a team of professional hair and make-up artists offering luxury mobile services. WE COME TO YOU TO MAKE YOUR MEMORIES BEAUTIFUL. Glitz Galz deliver the highest standards in quality and performance PALs use PROM, which is one-time programmable, while GAL uses EEPROM, which can be reprogrammed. SRAM is designed using transistors and the term static means that the value loaded on a basic SRAM Memory Cell will remain the same until deliberately changed or when the power is removed NOR flash memory gives enough address lines to map all memory range. It gives fast random access and short read time. The disadvantage is low programming and erasing speed, and as soon as NOR memory cell is big enough, it makes it expensive. NAN memory cell is smaller and cost less, has higher program/erase speed